How do you calculate your returns when you every year you invest different amount and at the end you receive your Money back? Suppose your invest 5000, 10000, 6000, 4000 and 6500 in 5 yrs and Get 53,000 at the end of 5 yrs then what is your Return? It’s 17.4%. The concept is called IRR. Read below to understand more:

So Here we will learn two things IRR and XIRR

What is IRR and How to Calculate it?

IRR is Internal Rate of Return and it is used to calculate the returns given some amount at a fixed interval i.e. after every 3 months or after every 1 yr. The only thing which matters is that there should be equal distance between two installments. We will learn how to Calculate IRR in Excel Sheet. You would also love to read what is NPV ( Net Present Value) .

How to calculate?

- Enter your Investments (amount which you paid) in each row (you have to put “-” before each value)
- Enter the Amount you Received at the end (put “+” after that amount)
- Formula: =IRR(values)( place your values put the range of cells which contains values) see below:

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Use this Spreadsheet to calculate IRR for yourself

Things to NOTE

- The values need to be a set of Positive and Negative Values
- The last value is the amount you receive
- Any amount Invested will be Negative so if you invest Rs 10000, put -10000
- Any amount you Receive will be Positive so if you get Rs 5000, put +5000
- All the payment or receiving of money are equidistant, Like 1st of every month OR May 15th Every year
- All the payments are assumed to be yearly by default. If its’ some other time frame like monthly or quarterly use XIRR and put specific dates.

In the above example, the CAGR return was 17%. See this video post to understand how to calculate CAGR .

What is XIRR and How to Calculate it?

IRR does not solve one problem and that is when the payments are at Irregular interval. In that case we use XIRR. So in a Spreadsheet we put the date and the value both. See the example below:

How to Calculate

- Put Date and Value for each row
- At the last row put the Date and amount you received
- Put the formula as: =XIRR(values, dates), values and dates are the cell ranges

Use this Spreadsheet to calculate XIRR for yourself

In the above example the CAGR Return was 38.96% (I have multiplied the return by 100 the actual value will be .3896)

Real Life scenario when you can use it

Scenario 1

Suppose you Invest in a Mutual Funds per month on your own , you invest on 15th of every month in year 2006

- June 15 you invested 5000
- July 15 you invested 6000
- Aug 15 you invested 3000
- Sep 15 you receive 5000 (dividend)
- Oct 15 you invested 4000
- Nov 15 you invested 12000
- Dec 15 you Sell everything and Receive 35000

You can use IRR in this case and calculate your returns , the values you will be -5000 , -6000 , -3000 , +5000 , -4000 , +12000 , Calculate the IRR and put it as comments , lets see if you are correct or not ?

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Scenario 2

You can also compare two business ideas using the XIRR , and decide which one is better then other . In any business concept you have to invest money and you get back some return , but these returns can be irregular and different amount every time , In that case you can use XIRR and compare the returns of both business and decide the one which has better XIRR

Note : the formula can give answers in a but different ways on Excel , OpenOffice spreadsheet , google docs or Zoho Spread sheet . Use this Spreadsheet to calculate IRR and XIRR for yourself . The spreadsheet is shared , so please dont make any changes other than “values” and “dates” .

Comments ? I would love to hear if these concepts are of use to you or can be of any help to you . is IRR a good way of measuring returns ?

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MMago

Suppose the investments are from different sources and known is the overall project return. How do we calculate the returns due to the different sources that contributed different amounts at random times? Thank you and best regards.

Manish Chauhan

YOu need to combine all of them and just find out the outgo and incoming money at different times and then use XIRR function

Tasfia

Why is XIRR same for:

(1)

Time Cash Flow

11-01-14 1000

12-05-11 20

13-01-01 30

14-01-01 -2000

24.888%

(2)

Time Cash Flow

11-01-14 1000

12-05-11 20

13-01-01 30

14-01-01 -2000

15-04-01 0

24.888%

Manish Chauhan

Why should;nt it be . you got 0 one a date, even if you have not written than in first example, its still there !

Neeraj

Hi Manish,

I have XIRR values and portfolio values for three Mutual funds as below:

MF Portfolio value, Rs XIRR

A 5,500 26.4%

B 6,500 16.3%

C 6,000 -20.4%

How will I calculate portfolio XIRR?

Thanks

Manish Chauhan

Its not possible, because you dont have individual cashflow date wise. For portfolio XIRR , you need portfolio values !

Vic

Pls help with this cash flow issue. I used XIRR to determine the effective interest rate (EIR) of a loan with monthly repayment but the final balance isn’t giving zero but rather 66,927.74. Whereas using IRR, you arrive at zero as the final balance.

Payment Date Opening bal. Interest at EIR Cashflow Closing Balance

15-Jan-2010 (5,600,000.00) 5,600,000.00

1-Feb-2010 5,600,000.00 88,804.03 1,000,000.00 4,688,804.03

1-Mar-2010 4,688,804.03 115,662.41 1,000,000.00 3,804,466.44

1-Apr-2010 3,804,466.44 103,902.88 1,000,000.00 2,908,369.32

1-May-2010 2,908,369.32 76,867.53 1,000,000.00 1,985,236.85

1-Jun-2010 1,985,236.85 54,218.33 1,000,000.00 1,039,455.18

1-Jul-2010 1,039,455.18 27,472.56 1,000,000.00 66,927.74

XIRR = 32.16%

Thanks.

Manish Chauhan

Hi Vic

http://www.jagoinvestor.com/forum is the right place to ask these questions !

Divesh

-5000

-6000

-3000

5000

-4000

-12000

35000

11% IRR

Puneet

hi Manish.

Thanks for this good article.

I had a small question.

To calcualte retruns on SIP or some stock scripts which i have bought over few months, can i use the WEIGHTED AVERAGE i.e. can i compare the weighted avg cost price vs current value to give me returns ?

Basically i wanted to understand when to use IRR & when to use some other tool to calculate retrun.

Thanks

Manish Chauhan

I am not sure what is your question ? Look at this video http://www.jagoinvestor.com/2011/02/calculate-insurance-policies-returns-video.html

Puneet

Hi Manish.

What i meant was, suppose in invested monthly in a equity MF SIP @ 2000 INR/month for 21 months. Now the current value is 62k. So, if i calculate IRR it comes as 4% (isnt this too low return?). Where as if i calculate using Weighted Avg (wt avg purchase cost comes to 42k) – the retrun is 20k/42 k = ~48% ??

Is this correct ?

Thanks

Manish Chauhan

Yea .. the returns are too low, but then markets have moves like that only.. I hope you know that mutual funds returns are not guaranteed !

Puneet

Thanks for your reply Manish.

Wanted your views on comparsion of returns basis IRR calculation & weighted avg ? My Avg Cost, because of the market fluctuation is 42k. While current return is 62k – so by this is my return 48% ?

Which one is a better tool for returns calculator in this case specifically.

Manish Chauhan

Its IRR which you should look at !

Naren

Sorry, but the explanation provided and formula used for IRR is not correct for your specific case involving monthly cash flows. By default, Excel assumes annual time periods for IRR calculations, therefore, in your case, it is treated as 21 years (not 21 months), hence your cash flows get discounted very aggressively leading to the 3-4% figure that you get.

Manish Chauhan

ok , will check it out and correct it !

Bhushan

Agree with Naren, IRR assumes annual time period.

Puneet,

Use XIRR where you can put monthly dates and with that Rs.2000 invested for 21 months and 62000 as returns will give XIRR rate of 49.51%. It is indeed a very good return.

DEBRAJ SENGUPTA

NOT BEEN ABLE TO GET XIRR CALCULATION. THE DATE AND VALUE FIELD ARE ENTERED AS YR/MONTH/DT AND OUTFLOW IN NEGATIVE BUT THE CALCULATION SHOWS #VALUE. PLS HELP

Manish Chauhan

Can you share the snapshot ?